Inglés

Inglés es un idioma esencial hoy en día. Si bien gran parte del contenido que uno utiliza se encuentra ya disponible en español, no siempre es así. Todos los adelantos aparecen primero en esta lengua mundial y es por ello que un buen manejo nos permite lograr muchas cosas más rápido. A continuación pongo a disposición un resumen con algunas particularidades del idioma que te pueden servir.

Orden gramatical: Who, verb, what, how, where, when

Time expressions: yesterday, last (year, month, week), X (years, days, months) ago

Frequency adverbs: sometimes, always, never, usually, often, seldom

House: stairs, living room, dining room, bedroom, bathroom, upstairs, downstairs, kitchen

Hour: quarter, half, past (después de X:00, antes de X:30), to (después de X:30, antes de X:00)

Periods: prehistoric, ancient, bronze age, medieval, victorian, modern, 15th century, 1960’s

City: library, museum, cinema, theater, church, school, park, square, opposite, next to, lake, lagoon, river, portrait, landscape

Verbs+ing: love, like, enjoy, prefer, fancy, don’t like, dislike, can’t stand, hate

Speaking tips: Do you?, Are you?, Really?, Me too (persona), So do I (action), So will I, that’s interesting

Personality: generous ≠ mean, selfish/kind≠unkind/confident≠shy/polite≠impolite/lazy≠hard-working/cheerful≠reserved, depressive/funny ≠ bored, boring/patient ≠ impatient/moody ≠ quiet/talkative ≠ reserved, quiet/optimistic ≠ pessimistic

Aim=objective=target=goal=purpose

Giving opinion: I think, I suppose, I believe, I imagine, I guess, for me, in my opinion, from my point of view

Do you fancy… / what about… / Do you want to…

Tips: really, that’s great, right, I see, that’s interesting, ok, I understand, that’s brilliant, that sounds great/wonderful

Time: second, minute, hour, day, week, fortnight, month, season, semester, year, decade, century, millennium

Interrogative words: what, when, where, which, why, who, whose, what time, how far, how many, how much, how long, how deep, how old, how

Passive: Past (They saw a film->The film was seen) / Present (People read magazines->Magazines are read)

Comparación:

Sílabas Comparative Superlative
1 -er than The –est
2 (si termina en “y” cambia a “i”) -er than The –est
3 or more More (adjective) than The most (adjective)

Reported speech:

Command (tell)

Go away (to): She told him to go away

Don’t interrupt (not to): She told him not to interrupt

Requests (ask): Do your homework please -> She ask me to do my homework

Questions (ask): What time is it? -> She asked me what time it was

Statements:

  • Present -> past (She said she was very happy)
  • Past -> Past perfect (She said she had eaten pizza)
  • Future -> Conditional (She said she would do his homework)

Comparison: (+) as…as (She is as beautiful as Susan) (?) Is she as beautiful as Susan? (-) Not as…as or less beautiful than

Fiestas: waiter, trey, glass, habe (service comida), balloons, look pleased, ornaments, seem, relax, smile, well dressed, well make up, naughty boy, wedding party, bridge, bridegroom, nice, confortable, inviting, well coming, cosy

Miedos … of (with fear of), cansado … of (tired), aburrido … with (bored)

Gestures: beckon, bow, cross your legs, fold your arms, hold hands, hug, kiss, nod, pat somebody on the back/head, point (at somebody/something), shake hands, wave, wink

Conversación compra de regalo común:

  • Are you alright?
  • They are out so soon and nothing is left.
  • We can make an effort
  • Let’s stick to that
  • Would make a wonderful present for her
  • Prefer to
  • Some perfume

Informal: How are things?, Hi, hello, nice to meet you (pregunta y respuesta)

Formal: How do you do? (q), How do you do (a), Nice to meet you (/again), Pleased to meet you

Despedida: It was a pleasure meeting you

Cantidades:

  • Un huevo (an), pocos huevos (some), muchos huevos (a lot of, lots of)

o   There is/are/was/were/will be/has been

o   Negativo: aren’t many

  • Poca mantequilla (some), mucha mantequilla (a lot of)

o   There is

o   Negativo: isn’t much, aren’t much

  • A little (singular), a few (plural)

Rural: cottage, field, footpath, gate, hedge, hill, lane, stream, village, wood

Urban: advertisement, bus stop, pavement, pedestrian crossing, post box, road sign, roadwork, rubbish bin, street lamp, traffic lights

“Directions”:

  • Across (atravezar la calle), over (atravezar [jump over]), past, through (a través de), along (siga al lado del muro)
  • Straight (derecho), turn left/right (doblar izq/der), walk/drive for 3 blocks (andar por 3 cuadras), then take the third (tome la 3ª), turning on your left (doblando a la izquierda)
  • Go through the gate into the lane (atravieza la reja entrando en el camino)

o   Into es para sender de peatón

  • You can’t miss it, behind, between … and, near, next to, on the corner of, opposite

Physical description:

  • Age: Little (0-14), young (14-40), middle aged (40-60), old – elderly lady (60-XXX)
  • Height: tall, medium height, short
  • Built: well built, slim, thin, fat, plump
  • Hair: long/short, blond/fair/dark, straight/wavy/curly
  • Distinctive features (al final): Man (mustache, beard), Woman (well made up, nice, quite nice, rather nice, really nice), with glasses, polite, cheerful, shy
  • Clothes: Sport, Casual, Formal, Uniform

Describing people: 1) physical description 2) Clothes 3) Personality

Example: He is a young boy, medium height and slim. He had got long blond wavy hair. He wears casual clothes. He is kind, cheerful and talkative.

Modifiers: Really, rather, quite, pretty, completely, extremely, amazingly, definitely, absolutely, entirely, rarely, certainly, wildly, violently, seriously, greatly, terribly, hardly, hardly ever, obviously, particularly, yet, still, lovingly, incredibly, easily, actually, mainly, gladly, fairly, very, widely, etc.

Figures of Speech: Metaphor, Simile, Personification, Hyperbole, Litote, Rhetorical question.

Links:

  • Add: also, and, and then, as well, besides, beyond that, first (second, third, last, and so on), for one thing, furthermore, in addition, in fact, moreover, next, what is more
  • Compare: also, as well, both (neither), in the same way, in like manner, likewise, similarly
  • Contrast: although, be that as it may, but, even though, however, in contrast, instead, nevertheless, on the contrary, (on the one hand…) … on the other hand, still, yet, whereas
  • Concede (a point): certainly, granted that, of course, no doubt, to be sure
  • Emphasize: above all, especially, in fact, in particular, indeed, most important, surely
  • Illustrate: as a case in point, as an illustration, for example, for instance, in particular, one such, yet another
  • Place: above, beside, below, beyond, further, here, inside, nearby, next to, on the far side, outside, to the East (north, South, and so on)
  • Qualify: Perhaps, It is worth noting that, On the verge
  • Give a reason: as, because, for, since
  • Show a result: and so, because of this, as a consequence, as a result, consequently, incidentally, for this reason, hence, so, therefore, thus, In short
  • Summarize: all in all, finally, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, lastly, on the whole, to sum up, in sum, all in all, indeed
  • Place in time: While, after a while, afterward, at last, at present, briefly, currently, during, eventually, finally, first (second, and so on), first of all, after that, gradually, immediately, in the future, later, meanwhile, now, recently, soon, suddenly, then

The passive voice (to be + past participle)

Tense Active Passive
Present Simple They develop films here Films are developed here
Present Continuous They are developing a film now A film is being developed now
Past Simple They developed films yesterday Films were developed yesterday
Past Continuous They were developing films Films were being developed
Present Perfect They have developed films Films have been developed
Future simple They will develop films tomorrow Films will be developed tomorrow
Would/can/must They would develop films if… Films would be developed if…

Story:

The purpose of a story is to entertain and interest the reader. Use a neutral style – not formal but not too informal either. Use descriptive language: adjectives and adverbs make a story more dramatic. A good story has an interesting beginning, a middle which maintains our interest and a definite end. You need to set the scene and choose two or three events to describe in detail.

How should I structure a story?

  1. Begin or end your story with the words given, if this is asked for in the task.
  2. Include an introductory paragraph. Unless you are writing in the first person, introduce the main characters. Say where and when the events took place, and give any other important background information. Make your beginning interesting so that people will want to read on.
  3. Write one or two middle paragraphs, where you develop the story. Use a new paragraph for a different event and sequencing words to order the events.
  4. Add descriptive details using adjectives and adverbs to make your writing more real, lively and interesting.
  5. Include a concluding paragraph, where you bring the story to an end.

Tenses to use:

  • Simple past -> chain of events
  • Past continuous -> Set the scene
  • Past perfect -> Before the past

Essay:

Introductory Paragraph

Refer to the question in the first paragraph. Make a general statement about the question or briefly introduce arguments for and against.

  • General Statement
  • Thesis statement

Body paragraphs

Use linking words to connect ideas and sentences. Present both sides of the argument in separate paragraphs, where appropriate giving examples that support the different points of view.

  • Topic sentence
  • Supporting sentence
  • Concluding Sentence

Concluding paragraph

Express your own opinion in the final paragraph.

  • Concluding sentence
  • Final thoughts

Letter

  1. Invent a name for the person you are writing to.
  2. Mention the correspondence that you have received. Thank the person for it or react to it in some way.
  3. Use informal language, contractions, some short sentences, phrasal verbs and (one or two) exclamation marks.
  4. Divide the letter into three or four short paragraphs, each with its own topic.
  5. Finish the letter with an informal phrase such as Love, Lots of love or All the best.

Formal letter

The purpose of the letter may be: asking for or giving information; initiating action or responding to a request; giving feedback on suggestions; making complaints, suggestions or corrections. Probably it will be readed by someone who you do not know well, if at all. This may be a named individual, or an unnamed representative of an organization, possibly a person in a position of authority or responsibility. Be polite. Use indirect expressions, formal linking phrases and set phrases wherever appropriate. Avoid being too familiar, or using contractions and colloquial language.

  1. Begin your letter with “Dear Sir or Madam” if you don’t know the name of the person, and with “Dear (Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms Simpson)” if you do.
  2. Start by saying why you are writing. Clearly state the subject or context.
  3. Divide the letter into three or four short paragraphs, each with its own topic. Say how you expect the other person to respond to your letter if this is appropriate. Use linking words to join ideas and sentences.
  4. Write ‘I look forward to hearing from you’, after the final paragraph.
  5. Finish your letter in one of these ways: ‘Yours sincerely’, if you have started your letter with the name of the person you are writing to; ‘Yours faithfully’, if you have started your letter Dear Sir/Madam.

A review

  1. In the first paragraph say what you are reviewing and give revenant key information /such as the author of a book or the director of a film).
  2. You can give both positive and negative opinions.
  3. Say briefly what happens in the book, play, film, etc.
  4. Put each topic in a separate paragraph.
  5. Summarize your opinion in the final paragraph and give a recommendation (either positive or negative)
  6. If you can, give examples from the story to support your opinions, but make sure you keep within the word limit.

An article

  1. Involve the reader. You can address them directly, especially with questions.
  2. Use an informal, lively style. Avoid using a lot of formal language.
  3. Divide the information into clearly organized paragraphs.
  4. Finish by summarizing what you have said, and giving your opinion, if appropriate.

A report

  1. Start with an introduction setting out the aim of the report.
  2. Organise the information into sections. Use headings if appropriate.
  3. You can use numbered or bullet points.
  4. Use fairly normal language.
  5. Express opinions impersonally.
  6. Finish with a conclusion giving your recommendation.

Particularidades:

Plurals: Child/children man/men woman/women there is/ there are foot/feet

I->me, you->you, he->him, she->her, it->it, we->us, you->you, they->them

this->that, here->there, today->that day, tomorrow->the following day, yesterday->the day before, now->then, last Friday->the previous Friday

Preposiciones

  • ability at (not in)
  • afraid of (not by)
  • agree with a person
  • agree about a subject of discussion
  • agree on a matter of decision
  • agree to a suggestion
  • angry with (sometimes at) a person for doing something
  • angry about (sometimes at) something
  • apologize for
  • arrive at or in (not to)
  • bad at (not in)
  • believe in God (believe that something exists)
  • believe a person or something that is said (accept as true)
  • blue with cold, red with anger
  • call after (We called him Francesco, after his grandfather)
  • clever at (not in)
  • congratulate/congratulations on (not for)
  • crash into (not against)
  • depend/dependent on (not from or of; but independent of)
  • different from (sometimes to; American from or than)
  • difficulty with something, (in) doing something (nor difficulties to)
  • disappointed with somebody
  • disappointed with/at/about something
  • a discussion about something
  • to discuss something (without preposition)
  • divide into (not in)
  • dream of (think of, imagine)
  • dream about
  • dress in (not with)
  • drive into
  • example of (not for)
  • explain something to somebody (not explain somebody something)
  • get in(to) and out of a car, taxi or small boat
  • get on(to) and off a bus, train, plane, ship
  • good at (not in)
  • the idea of …-ing (not the idea to…)
  • ill with
  • impressed with/by
  • Independent of, independence of/from
  • insist on (not to…)
  • interest/interested in (not for)
  • kind to (not with)
  • laugh at
  • listen to
  • look at (point one’s eyes at)
  • look after (take care of)
  • look for (try to find)
  • marriage to; get married to (not with)
  • nice to (not with)
  • pay for something (not pay something)
  • pleased with somebody
  • pleased with/about/at something
  • polite to (not with)
  • prevent … from …-ing (not to…)
  • proof of (not for)
  • reason for (not of)
  • remind of
  • responsible/responsibility for
  • rude to (not with)
  • run into (meet)
  • search for (look for)
  • search without preposition (look through; look everywhere in/on)
  • shocked by/at
  • shout at (aggressive)
  • shout to (call to)
  • smile at
  • sorry about something that has happened
  • sorry for/about something that one has done
  • sorry for a person
  • suffer from
  • surprised at/by
  • take part in (not at)
  • think of/about (not usually think to …)
  • the thought of … (not the thought to …)
  • throw … at (aggressive)

Verbos

Tenses (tiempos verbales)

Simple present

  • (+): He speaks
  • (-): He does not speak
  • (?): Does he speak?
  • for actions in the present taking place once, never or several times
  • facts
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action set by a timetable or schedule (future form)
  • routines / general information

Present progressive / Present continuous / Now present

  • (+): He is speaking
  • (-): He is not speaking
  • (?): Is he speaking?
  • Action taking place in the moment of speaking
  • action taking place only for a limited period of time
  • action arranged for the future (future form)

Simple past

  • (+): He spoke
  • (-): He did not speak
  • (?): Did he speak?
  • action in the past taking place once, never or several times
  • actions taking place one after another
  • action taking place in the middle of another action
  • That sarted and finished

Past progressice / Past continuous

  • (+): He was speaking
  • (-): He was not speaking
  • (?): Was he speaking?
  • action going on at a certain time in the past
  • actions taking place at the same time
  • action in the past that is interrupted by another action

Present perfect simple

  • (+): He has spoken
  • (-): He has not spoken
  • (?): Has he spoken?
  • putting emphasis on the result
  • action that is still going on
  • action that stopped recently
  • finished action that has an influence on the present
  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking

Present perfect progressive

  • (+): He has been speaking
  • (-): He has not been speaking
  • (?): Has he been speaking?
  • putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
  • action that recently stopped or is still going on
  • finished action that influenced the present

Past perfect simple

  • (+): He had spoken
  • (-): He had not spoken
  • (?): Had he spoken?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with the past perfect progressive
  • putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)

Past perfect progressive

  • (+): He had been speaking
  • (-): He had not been speaking
  • (?): Had he been speaking?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the past
  • sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
  • putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action

Future I simple (will)

  • (+): He will speak
  • (-): He will not speak
  • (?): Will he speak?
  • action in the future that cannot be influenced
  • spontaneous decision, made at the moment of speaking
  • assumption with regard to the future, prediction
  • opinión, promesa, petición

Future I simple (going to)

  • (+): He is going to speak
  • (-): He is not going to speak
  • (?): Is he going to speak?
  • decision made for the future
  • conclusion with regard to the future
  • intentions and plans made before the moment of speaking
  • predictions made on clear evidence

Future I progressive

  • (+): He will be speaking
  • (-): He will not be speaking
  • (?): Will he be speaking?
  • action that is going on at a certain time in the future
  • action that is sure to happen in the near future

Future II simple

  • (+): He will have spoken
  • (-): He will not have spoken
  • (?): Will he have spoken?
  • action that will be finished at a certain time in the future

Future II progressive

  • (+): He will have been speaking
  • (-): He will not have been speaking
  • (?): Will he have been speaking?
  • action taking place before a certain time in the future
  • putting emphasis on the course of an action

Conditional I simple

  • (+): He would speak
  • (-): He would not speak
  • (?): Would he speak?
  • action that might take place

Conditional I progressive

  • (+): He would be speaking
  • (-): He would not be speaking
  • (?): Would he be speaking?
  • action that might take place
  • putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action

Conditional II simple

  • (+): He would have spoken
  • (-): He would not have spoken
  • (?): Would he have spoken?
  • action that might have taken place in the past

Conditional II progressive

  • (+): He would have been speaking
  • (-): He would not have been speaking
  • (?): Would he have been speaking?
  • action that might have taken place in the past
  • puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action

1th conditional (condition -> consequence)

Use: possibility (If I study, I’ll get a good mark)

(-) Present: S + don’t, doesn’t,     Future: will not, won’t

(+) Present: If + S+ Present,     Future: S + will + verb

2th conditional

Use: hypothetical situations (If she had money, she would buy a new PC)

If + S + [(-) didn’t] Past Simple, S + would + infinitive

(A veces es mejor usar “were” en she, he, it, en el if)

3rd conditional

Use: Past situations that we can’t change (If I had known about the party, I would have gone)

If + S + Past perfect, S + would + have + P.p.

Modal verbs: (S+ MV+ Verb)

  • Possibility -> might (25%) / may (50%) (-)= not…
  • Certainly -> must (+) / can’t (-) (100% sure)
  • Probability (Hypothesis) -> must / can’t
  • Obligation -> have to [(-) = don’t, doesn’t] / had to [(-) didn’t]

Verbos irregulares

Verbo Infinitivo Past simple Past participle
ser o estar be was been
derrotar beat beat beaten
llegar a ser become became become
empezar begin began begun
doblar bend bent bent
apostar bet bet bet
morder bite bit bitten
sangrar bleed bled bled
soplar blow blew blown
quebrar break broke broken
traer bring brought brought
construir build built built
quemar burn burnt (burned) burnt (burned)
reventar burst burst burst
comprar buy bought bought
agarrar/alcanzar/pillar catch caught caught
escoger choose chose chosen
venir come came come
costar cost cost cost
cortar cut cut cut
cavar dig dug dug
hacer do did done
dibujar draw drew drawn
soñar dream dreamt (dreamed) dreamt (dreamed)
beber drink drank drunk
donducir drive drove driven
comer eat ate eaten
caer fall fell fallen
alimentar feed fed fed
sentir feel felt felt
pelear fight fought fought
encontrar find found found
volar fly flew dlown
prohibir forbid forbade forbidden
olvidar forget forgot forgotten
perdonar forgive forgave forgiven
congelar freeze froze frozen
obtener get got got (AE gotten)
dar/regalar give gave given
ir go went gone
crecer/cultivar grow grew grown
colgar hang hung hung
tener/haber/servirse have had had
oir hear heard heard
esconder hide hid hidden
golpear hit hit hit
sostener/efectuar hold held held
herir hurt hurt hurt
guardar keep kept kept
arrodillarse kneel knelt (kneeled) knelt (kneeled)
conocer know knew know
colocar(poner) lay laid laid
dirigir lead led led
apoyarse lean leant (leaned) leant (leaned)
aprender learn learnt (learned) learnt (learned)
dejar/partir leave left left
prestar lend lent lent
permitir let let let
yacer lie lay lain
encender light lit lit
perder lose lost lost
hacer make made made
significar/querer decir mean meant meant
encontrarse meet met met
pagar pay paid paid
poner put put put
leer read read read
cabalgar ride rode ridden
sonar ring rang rung
elevar rise rose risen
correr run ran run
decir say said said
ver see saw seen
buscar seek sought sought
vender sell sold sold
enviar send sent sent
poner set set set
sacudir/agitar shake shook shaken
brillar shine shone shone
disparar shoot shot shot
mostrar show showed shown (showed)
encojerse shrink shrank shrunk
cerrar shut shut shut
cantar sing sang sung
hundir sink sank sunk
sentarse sit sat sat
dormir sleep slept slept
deslizarse slide slid slid
oler smell smelt (smelled) smelt (smelled)
hablar speack spoke spoken)
deletrear spell spelt (spelled) spelt (spelled)
gastar spend spent spent
girar spin spun spun
spit spat spat
dividir split split split
difundir spread spread spread
saltar spring sprang sprung
estar parado stand stood stood
robar steal stole stole
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
strike struck struck
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
nadar swim swam swum
swing swung swung
tomar take took taken
enseñar teach taught taught
despedazar tear tore torn
contar tell told told
pensar think throught thought
lanzar/arrojar throw threw thrown
tread trod trodden
entender understand understood understood
despertar wake woke woken
llevar puesto wear wore worn
weep wept wept
ganar win won won
escribir write wrote written

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