Inglés es un idioma esencial hoy en día. Si bien gran parte del contenido que uno utiliza se encuentra ya disponible en español, no siempre es así. Todos los adelantos aparecen primero en esta lengua mundial y es por ello que un buen manejo nos permite lograr muchas cosas más rápido. A continuación pongo a disposición un resumen con algunas particularidades del idioma que te pueden servir.
Orden gramatical: Who, verb, what, how, where, when
Time expressions: yesterday, last (year, month, week), X (years, days, months) ago
Frequency adverbs: sometimes, always, never, usually, often, seldom
House: stairs, living room, dining room, bedroom, bathroom, upstairs, downstairs, kitchen
Hour: quarter, half, past (después de X:00, antes de X:30), to (después de X:30, antes de X:00)
Periods: prehistoric, ancient, bronze age, medieval, victorian, modern, 15th century, 1960’s
City: library, museum, cinema, theater, church, school, park, square, opposite, next to, lake, lagoon, river, portrait, landscape
Verbs+ing: love, like, enjoy, prefer, fancy, don’t like, dislike, can’t stand, hate
Speaking tips: Do you?, Are you?, Really?, Me too (persona), So do I (action), So will I, that’s interesting
Personality: generous ≠ mean, selfish/kind≠unkind/confident≠shy/polite≠impolite/lazy≠hard-working/cheerful≠reserved, depressive/funny ≠ bored, boring/patient ≠ impatient/moody ≠ quiet/talkative ≠ reserved, quiet/optimistic ≠ pessimistic
Giving opinion: I think, I suppose, I believe, I imagine, I guess, for me, in my opinion, from my point of view
Do you fancy… / what about… / Do you want to…
Tips: really, that’s great, right, I see, that’s interesting, ok, I understand, that’s brilliant, that sounds great/wonderful
Time: second, minute, hour, day, week, fortnight, month, season, semester, year, decade, century, millennium
Interrogative words: what, when, where, which, why, who, whose, what time, how far, how many, how much, how long, how deep, how old, how
Passive: Past (They saw a film->The film was seen) / Present (People read magazines->Magazines are read)
|1||-er than||The –est|
|2 (si termina en “y” cambia a “i”)||-er than||The –est|
|3 or more||More (adjective) than||The most (adjective)|
Go away (to): She told him to go away
Don’t interrupt (not to): She told him not to interrupt
Requests (ask): Do your homework please -> She ask me to do my homework
Questions (ask): What time is it? -> She asked me what time it was
- Present -> past (She said she was very happy)
- Past -> Past perfect (She said she had eaten pizza)
- Future -> Conditional (She said she would do his homework)
Comparison: (+) as…as (She is as beautiful as Susan) (?) Is she as beautiful as Susan? (-) Not as…as or less beautiful than
Fiestas: waiter, trey, glass, habe (service comida), balloons, look pleased, ornaments, seem, relax, smile, well dressed, well make up, naughty boy, wedding party, bridge, bridegroom, nice, confortable, inviting, well coming, cosy
Miedos … of (with fear of), cansado … of (tired), aburrido … with (bored)
Gestures: beckon, bow, cross your legs, fold your arms, hold hands, hug, kiss, nod, pat somebody on the back/head, point (at somebody/something), shake hands, wave, wink
Conversación compra de regalo común:
- Are you alright?
- They are out so soon and nothing is left.
- We can make an effort
- Let’s stick to that
- Would make a wonderful present for her
- Prefer to
- Some perfume
Informal: How are things?, Hi, hello, nice to meet you (pregunta y respuesta)
Formal: How do you do? (q), How do you do (a), Nice to meet you (/again), Pleased to meet you
Despedida: It was a pleasure meeting you
- Un huevo (an), pocos huevos (some), muchos huevos (a lot of, lots of)
o There is/are/was/were/will be/has been
o Negativo: aren’t many
- Poca mantequilla (some), mucha mantequilla (a lot of)
o There is
o Negativo: isn’t much, aren’t much
- A little (singular), a few (plural)
Rural: cottage, field, footpath, gate, hedge, hill, lane, stream, village, wood
Urban: advertisement, bus stop, pavement, pedestrian crossing, post box, road sign, roadwork, rubbish bin, street lamp, traffic lights
- Across (atravezar la calle), over (atravezar [jump over]), past, through (a través de), along (siga al lado del muro)
- Straight (derecho), turn left/right (doblar izq/der), walk/drive for 3 blocks (andar por 3 cuadras), then take the third (tome la 3ª), turning on your left (doblando a la izquierda)
- Go through the gate into the lane (atravieza la reja entrando en el camino)
o Into es para sender de peatón
- You can’t miss it, behind, between … and, near, next to, on the corner of, opposite
- Age: Little (0-14), young (14-40), middle aged (40-60), old – elderly lady (60-XXX)
- Height: tall, medium height, short
- Built: well built, slim, thin, fat, plump
- Hair: long/short, blond/fair/dark, straight/wavy/curly
- Distinctive features (al final): Man (mustache, beard), Woman (well made up, nice, quite nice, rather nice, really nice), with glasses, polite, cheerful, shy
- Clothes: Sport, Casual, Formal, Uniform
Describing people: 1) physical description 2) Clothes 3) Personality
Example: He is a young boy, medium height and slim. He had got long blond wavy hair. He wears casual clothes. He is kind, cheerful and talkative.
Modifiers: Really, rather, quite, pretty, completely, extremely, amazingly, definitely, absolutely, entirely, rarely, certainly, wildly, violently, seriously, greatly, terribly, hardly, hardly ever, obviously, particularly, yet, still, lovingly, incredibly, easily, actually, mainly, gladly, fairly, very, widely, etc.
Figures of Speech: Metaphor, Simile, Personification, Hyperbole, Litote, Rhetorical question.
- Add: also, and, and then, as well, besides, beyond that, first (second, third, last, and so on), for one thing, furthermore, in addition, in fact, moreover, next, what is more
- Compare: also, as well, both (neither), in the same way, in like manner, likewise, similarly
- Contrast: although, be that as it may, but, even though, however, in contrast, instead, nevertheless, on the contrary, (on the one hand…) … on the other hand, still, yet, whereas
- Concede (a point): certainly, granted that, of course, no doubt, to be sure
- Emphasize: above all, especially, in fact, in particular, indeed, most important, surely
- Illustrate: as a case in point, as an illustration, for example, for instance, in particular, one such, yet another
- Place: above, beside, below, beyond, further, here, inside, nearby, next to, on the far side, outside, to the East (north, South, and so on)
- Qualify: Perhaps, It is worth noting that, On the verge
- Give a reason: as, because, for, since
- Show a result: and so, because of this, as a consequence, as a result, consequently, incidentally, for this reason, hence, so, therefore, thus, In short
- Summarize: all in all, finally, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, lastly, on the whole, to sum up, in sum, all in all, indeed
- Place in time: While, after a while, afterward, at last, at present, briefly, currently, during, eventually, finally, first (second, and so on), first of all, after that, gradually, immediately, in the future, later, meanwhile, now, recently, soon, suddenly, then
The passive voice (to be + past participle)
|Present Simple||They develop films here||Films are developed here|
|Present Continuous||They are developing a film now||A film is being developed now|
|Past Simple||They developed films yesterday||Films were developed yesterday|
|Past Continuous||They were developing films||Films were being developed|
|Present Perfect||They have developed films||Films have been developed|
|Future simple||They will develop films tomorrow||Films will be developed tomorrow|
|Would/can/must||They would develop films if…||Films would be developed if…|
The purpose of a story is to entertain and interest the reader. Use a neutral style – not formal but not too informal either. Use descriptive language: adjectives and adverbs make a story more dramatic. A good story has an interesting beginning, a middle which maintains our interest and a definite end. You need to set the scene and choose two or three events to describe in detail.
How should I structure a story?
- Begin or end your story with the words given, if this is asked for in the task.
- Include an introductory paragraph. Unless you are writing in the first person, introduce the main characters. Say where and when the events took place, and give any other important background information. Make your beginning interesting so that people will want to read on.
- Write one or two middle paragraphs, where you develop the story. Use a new paragraph for a different event and sequencing words to order the events.
- Add descriptive details using adjectives and adverbs to make your writing more real, lively and interesting.
- Include a concluding paragraph, where you bring the story to an end.
Tenses to use:
- Simple past -> chain of events
- Past continuous -> Set the scene
- Past perfect -> Before the past
Refer to the question in the first paragraph. Make a general statement about the question or briefly introduce arguments for and against.
- General Statement
- Thesis statement
Use linking words to connect ideas and sentences. Present both sides of the argument in separate paragraphs, where appropriate giving examples that support the different points of view.
- Topic sentence
- Supporting sentence
- Concluding Sentence
Express your own opinion in the final paragraph.
- Concluding sentence
- Final thoughts
- Invent a name for the person you are writing to.
- Mention the correspondence that you have received. Thank the person for it or react to it in some way.
- Use informal language, contractions, some short sentences, phrasal verbs and (one or two) exclamation marks.
- Divide the letter into three or four short paragraphs, each with its own topic.
- Finish the letter with an informal phrase such as Love, Lots of love or All the best.
The purpose of the letter may be: asking for or giving information; initiating action or responding to a request; giving feedback on suggestions; making complaints, suggestions or corrections. Probably it will be readed by someone who you do not know well, if at all. This may be a named individual, or an unnamed representative of an organization, possibly a person in a position of authority or responsibility. Be polite. Use indirect expressions, formal linking phrases and set phrases wherever appropriate. Avoid being too familiar, or using contractions and colloquial language.
- Begin your letter with “Dear Sir or Madam” if you don’t know the name of the person, and with “Dear (Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms Simpson)” if you do.
- Start by saying why you are writing. Clearly state the subject or context.
- Divide the letter into three or four short paragraphs, each with its own topic. Say how you expect the other person to respond to your letter if this is appropriate. Use linking words to join ideas and sentences.
- Write ‘I look forward to hearing from you’, after the final paragraph.
- Finish your letter in one of these ways: ‘Yours sincerely’, if you have started your letter with the name of the person you are writing to; ‘Yours faithfully’, if you have started your letter Dear Sir/Madam.
- In the first paragraph say what you are reviewing and give revenant key information /such as the author of a book or the director of a film).
- You can give both positive and negative opinions.
- Say briefly what happens in the book, play, film, etc.
- Put each topic in a separate paragraph.
- Summarize your opinion in the final paragraph and give a recommendation (either positive or negative)
- If you can, give examples from the story to support your opinions, but make sure you keep within the word limit.
- Involve the reader. You can address them directly, especially with questions.
- Use an informal, lively style. Avoid using a lot of formal language.
- Divide the information into clearly organized paragraphs.
- Finish by summarizing what you have said, and giving your opinion, if appropriate.
- Start with an introduction setting out the aim of the report.
- Organise the information into sections. Use headings if appropriate.
- You can use numbered or bullet points.
- Use fairly normal language.
- Express opinions impersonally.
- Finish with a conclusion giving your recommendation.
Plurals: Child/children man/men woman/women there is/ there are foot/feet
I->me, you->you, he->him, she->her, it->it, we->us, you->you, they->them
this->that, here->there, today->that day, tomorrow->the following day, yesterday->the day before, now->then, last Friday->the previous Friday
- ability at (not in)
- afraid of (not by)
- agree with a person
- agree about a subject of discussion
- agree on a matter of decision
- agree to a suggestion
- angry with (sometimes at) a person for doing something
- angry about (sometimes at) something
- apologize for
- arrive at or in (not to)
- bad at (not in)
- believe in God (believe that something exists)
- believe a person or something that is said (accept as true)
- blue with cold, red with anger
- call after (We called him Francesco, after his grandfather)
- clever at (not in)
- congratulate/congratulations on (not for)
- crash into (not against)
- depend/dependent on (not from or of; but independent of)
- different from (sometimes to; American from or than)
- difficulty with something, (in) doing something (nor difficulties to)
- disappointed with somebody
- disappointed with/at/about something
- a discussion about something
- to discuss something (without preposition)
- divide into (not in)
- dream of (think of, imagine)
- dream about
- dress in (not with)
- drive into
- example of (not for)
- explain something to somebody (not explain somebody something)
- get in(to) and out of a car, taxi or small boat
- get on(to) and off a bus, train, plane, ship
- good at (not in)
- the idea of …-ing (not the idea to…)
- ill with
- impressed with/by
- Independent of, independence of/from
- insist on (not to…)
- interest/interested in (not for)
- kind to (not with)
- laugh at
- listen to
- look at (point one’s eyes at)
- look after (take care of)
- look for (try to find)
- marriage to; get married to (not with)
- nice to (not with)
- pay for something (not pay something)
- pleased with somebody
- pleased with/about/at something
- polite to (not with)
- prevent … from …-ing (not to…)
- proof of (not for)
- reason for (not of)
- remind of
- responsible/responsibility for
- rude to (not with)
- run into (meet)
- search for (look for)
- search without preposition (look through; look everywhere in/on)
- shocked by/at
- shout at (aggressive)
- shout to (call to)
- smile at
- sorry about something that has happened
- sorry for/about something that one has done
- sorry for a person
- suffer from
- surprised at/by
- take part in (not at)
- think of/about (not usually think to …)
- the thought of … (not the thought to …)
- throw … at (aggressive)
Tenses (tiempos verbales)
- (+): He speaks
- (-): He does not speak
- (?): Does he speak?
- for actions in the present taking place once, never or several times
- actions taking place one after another
- action set by a timetable or schedule (future form)
- routines / general information
Present progressive / Present continuous / Now present
- (+): He is speaking
- (-): He is not speaking
- (?): Is he speaking?
- Action taking place in the moment of speaking
- action taking place only for a limited period of time
- action arranged for the future (future form)
- (+): He spoke
- (-): He did not speak
- (?): Did he speak?
- action in the past taking place once, never or several times
- actions taking place one after another
- action taking place in the middle of another action
- That sarted and finished
Past progressice / Past continuous
- (+): He was speaking
- (-): He was not speaking
- (?): Was he speaking?
- action going on at a certain time in the past
- actions taking place at the same time
- action in the past that is interrupted by another action
Present perfect simple
- (+): He has spoken
- (-): He has not spoken
- (?): Has he spoken?
- putting emphasis on the result
- action that is still going on
- action that stopped recently
- finished action that has an influence on the present
- action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
Present perfect progressive
- (+): He has been speaking
- (-): He has not been speaking
- (?): Has he been speaking?
- putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)
- action that recently stopped or is still going on
- finished action that influenced the present
Past perfect simple
- (+): He had spoken
- (-): He had not spoken
- (?): Had he spoken?
- action taking place before a certain time in the past
- sometimes interchangeable with the past perfect progressive
- putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)
Past perfect progressive
- (+): He had been speaking
- (-): He had not been speaking
- (?): Had he been speaking?
- action taking place before a certain time in the past
- sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
- putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action
Future I simple (will)
- (+): He will speak
- (-): He will not speak
- (?): Will he speak?
- action in the future that cannot be influenced
- spontaneous decision, made at the moment of speaking
- assumption with regard to the future, prediction
- opinión, promesa, petición
Future I simple (going to)
- (+): He is going to speak
- (-): He is not going to speak
- (?): Is he going to speak?
- decision made for the future
- conclusion with regard to the future
- intentions and plans made before the moment of speaking
- predictions made on clear evidence
Future I progressive
- (+): He will be speaking
- (-): He will not be speaking
- (?): Will he be speaking?
- action that is going on at a certain time in the future
- action that is sure to happen in the near future
Future II simple
- (+): He will have spoken
- (-): He will not have spoken
- (?): Will he have spoken?
- action that will be finished at a certain time in the future
Future II progressive
- (+): He will have been speaking
- (-): He will not have been speaking
- (?): Will he have been speaking?
- action taking place before a certain time in the future
- putting emphasis on the course of an action
Conditional I simple
- (+): He would speak
- (-): He would not speak
- (?): Would he speak?
- action that might take place
Conditional I progressive
- (+): He would be speaking
- (-): He would not be speaking
- (?): Would he be speaking?
- action that might take place
- putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action
Conditional II simple
- (+): He would have spoken
- (-): He would not have spoken
- (?): Would he have spoken?
- action that might have taken place in the past
Conditional II progressive
- (+): He would have been speaking
- (-): He would not have been speaking
- (?): Would he have been speaking?
- action that might have taken place in the past
- puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action
1th conditional (condition -> consequence)
Use: possibility (If I study, I’ll get a good mark)
(-) Present: S + don’t, doesn’t, Future: will not, won’t
(+) Present: If + S+ Present, Future: S + will + verb
Use: hypothetical situations (If she had money, she would buy a new PC)
If + S + [(-) didn’t] Past Simple, S + would + infinitive
(A veces es mejor usar “were” en she, he, it, en el if)
Use: Past situations that we can’t change (If I had known about the party, I would have gone)
If + S + Past perfect, S + would + have + P.p.
Modal verbs: (S+ MV+ Verb)
- Possibility -> might (25%) / may (50%) (-)= not…
- Certainly -> must (+) / can’t (-) (100% sure)
- Probability (Hypothesis) -> must / can’t
- Obligation -> have to [(-) = don’t, doesn’t] / had to [(-) didn’t]
|Verbo||Infinitivo||Past simple||Past participle|
|ser o estar||be||was||been|
|llegar a ser||become||became||become|
|quemar||burn||burnt (burned)||burnt (burned)|
|soñar||dream||dreamt (dreamed)||dreamt (dreamed)|
|obtener||get||got||got (AE gotten)|
|arrodillarse||kneel||knelt (kneeled)||knelt (kneeled)|
|apoyarse||lean||leant (leaned)||leant (leaned)|
|aprender||learn||learnt (learned)||learnt (learned)|
|oler||smell||smelt (smelled)||smelt (smelled)|
|deletrear||spell||spelt (spelled)||spelt (spelled)|